HIP   DYSPLASIA

This is not going to be a long dissertation on H.D., but rather a short insight into the problem, please take time to read through the article, and see why it is imperative to have your dogs x-rayed.

Hip dysplasia is a degenerative disease of the hip joints, which can and does cause considerable pain to the dog, but can be helped by medication:

The following points have been noted:

1:    Almost all large breeds are affected.

2:    It is more common in the large breeds, rather than                     the small.

3:    It is least common in the small breeds under 25lbs                        and have short legs.

4:    Pelvic muscle mass seems to be an observable clue                      as to predicting whether a dog is likely to have the                       disease.

5:    Regardless of parents, all puppies are born normal,                     the first signs can develop at 8 weeks.

6:    Fast growing puppies of the Large and Giant breeds                      have the largest incidence of the disease.

7:    Control of certain environmental factors will reduce        
the number of puppies affected.

8:    Dogs & Bitches are affected at the same rate.

9:    Genetically it is caused by "Polygenes" (Multiple                            genes)

10    Breeding "normals" with pedigree depth will reduce                    the number of puppies affected.

In order to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia, thought must be given to methods so far developed.
A survey on this subject turned up three methods which have been successfully used to control & reduce the incidence of CHD in domestic dogs.

  1)    Breeding with "Pedigree Depth" at least 3                                      generations of 'normals'.

  2)    Confining puppies to small cages to force them to                         sit on their haunches, and keep the femoral
         head well into the acetabulum.

  3)    Controlling those environmental conditions during                      the first 6 months of a puppies life which increase                       body weight and growth rate, and stress on the
         joints.



Any one,or a combination will bring about better control and reduction of canine hip dysplasia. 

Before going on let us consider when a breeder or owner could begin to relax from the fear of having a puppy, particularly a promising puppy develop  H.D.   In German Shepherd Dogs, and possibly also in other breeds, , 16% will be dysplastic when x-rayed at 6 months.  69% can be identified at 1 year, and almost all that will be dysplastic can be identified at 2 years of age.

THIS IS WHY IT IS IMPERATIVE TO DELAY X-RAYING UNTIL DOGS ARE 2 YEARS OLD.  As a dog x-rayed at 12 months could be clear, BUT if the same dog is x-rayed at 2 years of age, it could be dysplastic.

What can be said about the three methods mentioned above.  The first two are inter-related, and are the most practical for the majority of  breeders.  This only requires breeding of "normals" with pedigree depth, by this we mean three generations of h.d. free animals; and that care be taken in explaining to buyers how to control environmental factors, and why it is important.

It should be remembered that there is a strong correlation between dogs with hip dysplasia and muscle mass.

Put another way, the greater the pelvic muscle mass, the less chance of the dog developing hip dysplasia.

It also now seems that FEEDING AND EXERCISE play a strong part in the development of Hip Dysplasia.
Therefore IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT THE DOG NOT BE OVERFED, AND NOT ALLOWED TO OVER EXERCISE.

It is important also to note the following:
Although the parents of the puppies are certified 0:0, this DOES NOT MEAN that all the puppies will necessarily be H.D. free, neither does it mean that if the parents have MILD  H.D. that the puppies will also have this grading.

A dog could have a pedigree with 4 generations of 0:0, and one puppy or more could have gradings of 4:4

These Gradings are for South Africa. (See below for a table for HD Gradings throughout the world.)

THERE ARE NO GUARANTEES ANYWHERE IN THIS WORLD.

It is also important to note, that many people are inclined to overfeed their puppies, and allow them to become overweight, this puts a great deal of stress of the hip joints, and does contribute towards a bad hip score.  Therefore, DO NOT OVERFEED YOUR PUPPY, or allow him to have galloping exercise or jump until he is well over a year old.   By overfeeding, we mean that you must not allow him to become FAT, he must be well nourished.




                                  

COMPARATIVE HIP DYSPLASIA GRADINGS
O.F.A.              F.C.I.                B.V.A.             K.U.S.A.
             E

      Excellent
O.K. For Breeding.



              G

          Good
O.K. For Breeding


               F

            Fair
Not Recommended
    for Breeding


              B

     Borderline
Not Recommended
  for Breeding




             M
 
         Mild
  Breeding Not  
    Permitted



         MOD

      Moderate
   Breeding not              Permitted


            S

        Severe
    Breeding Not               Permitted



























         A - 1

         No Sign
  Breeding Permitted



             A - 2

   Good Respectively
   O.K. For Breeding


             B - 1

        Near Normal
  Breeding Permitted



            B - 2

     Transitional
        Changes
Breeding Permitted




         C1 - C2

             Mild
Breeding Permitted




           D1 - D2

         Moderate
Breeding Permitted



           E1 - E2

    Severe
Breeding Not Permitted




                0 - 4

            Excellent
with No More than 3 Per Hip



                5 - 10

                 Good
With No More than 6 Per Hip


               11 - 18

                 Fair
           No Extremes



                19 - 25

              Borderline






               26 - 35

                  Mild





              36 - 50

             Moderate




             51 - 106

               Severe






            

















                0

            Normal
  Breeding Permitted



                 0

      Normal
  Breeding Permitted


               0

    Transitional.  Or               marginal Dysplasia
  Breeding Permitted


                1

Transitional or Marginal           Dysplasia.
  Breeding Permitted




                  1

                Mild
   Breeding Permitted



                2

         Moderate
Breeding Not Permitted




                 3

           Severe
Breeding Not Permitted

        
                  4
         Very Severe

























It is interesting to note that the B.V.A. score each hip separately, e.g. one hip can have a score of 6, whilst the other has a score of 10, giving a total score of 16.

K.U.S.A. scored dogs can have varing scores for each hip, e.g. 0:0;  0:1; and so on throughout the whole range.